The Opioid Overdose Crisis

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Page last updated June 10, 2020 by Doug McVay, Editor/Senior Policy Analyst.

61. Opioid-overdose laws association with opioid use and overdose mortality

"Results
"By 2014, 30 states had a naloxone access and/or Good Samaritan law. States with naloxone access laws or Good Samaritan laws had a 14% (p = 0.033) and 15% (p = 0.050) lower incidence of opioid-overdose mortality, respectively. Both law types exhibit differential association with opioid-overdose mortality by race and age. No significant relationships were observed between any of the examined laws and non-medical opioid use.

"Conclusions
"Laws designed to increase layperson engagement in opioid-overdose reversal were associated with reduced opioid-overdose mortality. We found no evidence that these measures were associated with increased non-medical opioid use."

McClellan, Chandler, Lambdin, Barrot H., et al. Opioid-overdose laws association with opioid use and overdose mortality. Addictive Behaviors. March 19, 2018.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/...

62. Prevalence of Neuropathic Pain

"Neuropathic pain (NP) is defined as pain caused by a lesion or disease of the central or peripheral somatosensory nervous system.[1] NP affects between 5% and 10% of the US population [2] and examples include diabetic neuropathy, complex regional pain syndrome, radiculopathy, phantom limb pain, HIV sensory neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and poststroke pain.[3]"

Collen, Mark, "Prescribing Cannabis for Harm Reduction," Harm Reduction Journal (London, United Kingdom: January 2012) Vol. 9, Issue 1, p. 1.
http://www.harmreductionjourna...

63. Medicinal Cannabis as an Alternative to Prescription Opioid Medicines

"The use of MC [Medical Cannabis] as an alternative to POMs [Prescription Opioid Medications] for pain management warrants additional empirical attention as a potential harm reduction strategy. NASEM (2017) recommends more clinical trials to elucidate appropriate MC forms, routes of administration, and combination of products for treating pain, but access to MC products to fully evaluate these questions is challenging due to federal regulations. However, the recently funded National Institutes of Health longitudinal study to research the impacts of MC on opioid use is a critical step in the right direction (NIH, 2017; Williams, 2017). MCs potential as an alternative pain treatment modality to help mitigate the major public health opioid crisis, could be a missed opportunity if data on safety, efficacy, and outcomes are not collected and explored. Health care practitioners, particularly nurses who are charged with ensuring patient comfort, have a vested interest in providing viable alternatives to POMs when appropriate, as part of an integrative approach to pain management, and must advocate for more research to better understand the public health implications and risks and benefits of such alternatives."

Vyas, Marianne Beare et al. The use of cannabis in response to the opioid crisis: A review of the literature. Nursing Outlook, Volume 66, Issue 1, 56 - 65.
https://www.nursingoutlook.org/...
https://www.nursingoutlook.org/...

64. Pain-Related Lost Productivity

Researchers used data from the American Productivity Audit to measure lost productivity in the US due to common pain conditions. In an article published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2003, they reported that "Overall, the estimated $61.2 billion per year in pain-related lost productive time in our study accounts for 27% of the total estimated work-related cost of pain conditions in the US workforce."

Stewart, Walter F., PhD, MPH, Judith A. Ricci, ScD, MS, Elsbeth Chee, ScD, David Morganstein, MS, Richard Lipton, MD, "Lost Productive Time and Cost Due to Common Pain Conditions in the US Workforce," Journal of the American Medical Association (Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, Nov. 12, 2003), Vol. 290, No. 18, p. 2449.
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ar...

65. Limited Data Available on Pain Treatment

"National survey data that provide detailed data on use of treatments are limited. Of the common pain conditions, sufficient details have only been reported on migraine headaches. Recent data indicate that only 41% of individuals who have migraine headaches in the US population ever receive any prescription drug for migraine. Only 29% report that satisfaction with treatment is moderate, especially among those who are often disabled by their episodes. Randomized trials demonstrate that optimal therapy for migraine dramatically reduces headache-related disability time in comparison with usual care."

Stewart, Walter F., PhD, MPH, Judith A. Ricci, ScD, MS, Elsbeth Chee, ScD, David Morganstein, MS, Richard Lipton, MD, "Lost Productive Time and Cost Due to Common Pain Conditions in the US Workforce," Journal of the American Medical Association (Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, Nov. 12, 2003), Vol. 290, No. 18, p. 2453.
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ar...

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