Models of Change
"Models of change often noted among underlying rationales for alternatives programming include the beliefs that alcohol and drug use results from youth alienation and anxiety, low self-esteem, or external locus of control. It should be noted, however, that research shows little or no relationship between these factors and substance abuse (Bachman 1975; Jessor and Jessor 1973; Jessor and Jessor 1977; Oetting et al. 1989). On the other hand, there is much research support for models of change based on the notions that attachment to social institutions (e.g., school, church), academic achievement, high educational aspirations, self-control, social competency, and attitudes unfavorable to alcohol and drug use are all generally inconsistent with the use and abuse of alcohol and drugs."
Maria Carmona and Kathryn Stewart, "A Review of Alternative Activities and Alternatives Programs in Youth-Oriented Prevention" (CSAP Technical Report 13), National Center for the Advancement of Prevention, under contract for the US Dept. of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, 1996, p. 17.