"The prevalence of use of illicit substances in Spain has been relatively stable in recent years, with more than one third of the adult population reporting lifetime use of an illicit substance. Cannabis is the most commonly used drug, with use mainly concentrated among adolescents and adults younger than 35 years. The prevalence of use of the most commonly consumed illicit drugs (cannabis and cocaine) showed a downward trend until 2017, when an increase was observed for both substances. The use of all illicit substances remains more prevalent among males than females.

"In 2017, 1 in 100 adults aged 15-64 years reported the use of new psychoactive substances. Most users of this type of substance were male and young and reported polydrug use (with other legal and illegal psychoactive substances).

"The Spanish cities of Barcelona, Castellón, Madrid, Santiago and Valencia participate in the Europe-wide annual wastewater campaigns undertaken by the Sewage Analysis Core Group Europe (SCORE). This study provides data on drug use at a municipal level, based on the levels of illicit drugs and their metabolites found in wastewater. The results of the 2018 study on stimulant drugs revealed high levels of cocaine metabolites in wastewater samples from all five cities, higher than the levels reported in some other European cities participating in the study. In addition, Barcelona recorded an increase in MDMA/ecstasy, amphetamine and methamphetamine residues between 2011 and 2018. A common pattern across the monitored cities was increased use of cocaine and MDMA at the weekends."


European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2019), Spain, Country Drug Report 2019, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.