"In 2012, the Bureau of Justice Statistics' (BJS) Census of Problem-Solving Courts (CPSC) counted 3,052 problem-solving courts in the United States (figure 1). The most common types of problem-solving courts were drug courts (44%) and mental health courts (11%) (figure 1). Most courts (53%) reported that they were established prior to 2005, including drug (64%), youth specialty (65%), hybrid DWI/drug (63%), and domestic violence (56%) courts.
"Problem-solving courts are a relatively recent development in the U.S. criminal justice system. These courts were created to address underlying problems that result in criminal behavior. Problem-solving courts are typically diversionary, meaning that a participant agrees to follow the guidelines of the court to avoid prosecution, incarceration, or other typical criminal justice outcomes. The criminal problem-solving court concept has been extended to civil and family court, such as family dependency matters, and to address the needs of certain populations, such as justice-involved veterans."


Strong, Suzanne M., PhD, Rantala, Ramona R., and Kyckelhahn, Tracey, PhD. Census of Problem-Solving Courts, 2012. Bureau of Justice Statistics. September 2016, NCJ249803. Page 1.