"Descriptions of deleterious effects of alcohol consumption on the fetus have appeared early in history, although the first scientific study documenting alcohol’s harmful effects was not published until 1968 (70). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), characterized by pre- and post-natal growth retardation, facial dysmorphology, and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, was recognized in 1973 as a consequence of chronic alcohol exposure during pregnancy (31). Since then, major and minor malformations, spontaneous abortion, and decreased birth weight have been among the many reported consequences of heavy alcohol use during pregnancy."


Polygenis, D., Wharton, S., Malmberg, C., Sherman, N., Kennedy, D., Koren, G., & Einarson, T. R. (1998). Moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the incidence of fetal malformations: a meta-analysis. Neurotoxicology and teratology, 20(1), 61–67. doi.org/10.1016/s0892-0362(97)00073-1.