Multiple Determinants of Poor Birth Outcomes

"Recent research stresses the multiple determinants of poor birth outcomes, with important factors including maternal poverty, poor nutrition, homelessness, a history of domestic violence, and lack of prenatal care.17 Because it is difficult to untangle the complex causal relationships between maternal drug use and other contributors to poor birth outcomes, it is short-sighted to focus solely on drugs as the source of fetal and childhood harm."


Fentiman, Linda C., "Pursuing the Perfect Mother: Why America's Criminalization of Maternal Substance Abuse is Not the Answer," Pace Law Faculty Publications (New York, NY: Pace University School of Law: April 24, 2008), pp. 7-8.