"The basic principles for electoral democracy are laid out in international law. Article 25 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) declares that 'Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity, without any of the distinctions mentioned in article 2 and without unreasonable restrictions:. . .(b) To vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the electors. . .'; Article 2 sets out that this applies 'without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.'"


Dhami, Mandeep K. "Prisoner Disenfranchisement Policy: A Threat to Democracy?" Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy (Washington, DC: The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, December 2005) Vol. 5, Issue 1, p. 235.