"Our data are from one of the first population-based studies in which trends for defects potentially caused by maternal cocaine use are examined; the results of our study show no significant change in the prevalence of multiple vascular disruption defects over time. We suspect that if cocaine is a teratogen, its teratogenicity is weak or is associated with a small subset of birth defects that are yet to be identified."


Martin, M. L., Khoury, M. J., Cordero, J. F., & Waters, G. D. (1992). Trends in rates of multiple vascular disruption defects, Atlanta, 1968-1989: is there evidence of a cocaine teratogenic epidemic? Teratology, 45(6), 647–653. doi.org/10.1002/tera.1420450609