"We conclude that comprehensive prenatal care may improve outcome in pregnancies complicated by cocaine abuse; however, the perinatal morbidity associated with cocaine abuse cannot be eliminated solely by improved prenatal care."


MacGregor, S. N., Keith, L. G., Bachicha, J. A., & Chasnoff, I. J. (1989). Cocaine abuse during pregnancy: correlation between prenatal care and perinatal outcome. Obstetrics and gynecology, 74(6), 882–885.

For further information, see Klein, L., & Goldenberg, R.L., "Prenatal Care and its Effect on Pre-Term Birth and Low Birth Weight," in Merkatz, I.R. & Thompson, J.E. (eds.), New Perspectives on Prenatal Care (New York, NY: Elsevier, 1990), pp. 511-513.