"Collateral consequences are those legal, non-criminal penalties that attach to a conviction, but that were not part of the punishment at sentencing. These penalties have been called the 'invisible punishment'4 because they are civil penalties that do not fall within the jurisdiction of the criminal justice system. Collateral consequences can make an individual with a criminal history ineligible for various types of employment and occupational licenses, rendering a job search nearly futile."


Rodriguez, Michelle Natividad; Farid, Elizabeth; and Porter, Nicole, "State Reforms Promoting Employment of People with Criminal Records: 2010-11 Legislative Round-Up," National Employment Law Project, the National H.I.R.E. Network, and the Sentencing Project (December 2011), p. 2.