"Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a drug withdrawal syndrome in newborns following birth. The syndrome most commonly occurs in the context of antepartum opiate use, although other drugs have also been implicated.2-5 In addition to NAS, illicit drug use (specifically opioid dependence) during pregnancy is associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes such as low birthweight (2500 g) and mortality.6-9 Neonatal abstinence syndrome is characterized by a wide array of signs and symptoms including increased irritability, hypertonia, tremors, feeding intolerance, emesis, watery stools, seizures, and respiratory distress.10"


Patrick, Stephen W.; Schumacher, Robert E.; Benneyworth, Brian D.; Krans, Elizabeth E.; McAllister, Jennifer M.; and Davis, Matthew M. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome and Associated Health Care Expenditures: United States, 2000-2009. Journal of the American Medical Association. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, April 30, 2012.