Family Risk and Protective Factors

"Family risk factors in the development of adolescent substance use are: known familial substance use or abuse, and a lack of parental supervision. Protective factors are: warm and supportive family environment, prosocial family processes (rules, monitoring) and attachment."


European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, "Preventing later substance use disorders in at-risk children and adolescents: a review of the theory and evidence base of indicated prevention" (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2009) , p. 15.