"In 2011, two thirds of European countries reported that ambulance personnel are trained in naloxone use; in just over half of these countries, naloxone is reported to be one of the standard medications carried in ambulances. Only Italy, Romania and the United Kingdom report the existence of community-based harm-reduction programmes that provide take-home naloxone to opioid users, their family members and carers. Legal barriers remain in place in other European countries, including Estonia, which has the highest drug-related mortality rate among adults (15–64) in the European Union. However, it was demonstrated in the United Kingdom that, with minimal training, healthcare professionals, including drug workers, can increase their knowledge, skills and confidence for managing an opioid overdose and administering naloxone (Mayet at al., 2011)."


European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, "Annual report 2012: the state of the drugs problem in Europe," Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, November 2012, Catalog No. TDAC12001ENC, doi:10.2810/64775.