"• Although availability of alcohol among 12th grade students in 2022 was at its second lowest level recorded since first measured in 1999, at 78% it is still very high (Tables 9-10 through 9-12 and Figure 9-5a).

"More substantial changes in the perceived availability of alcohol have taken place among 8th and 10th graders. For 8th graders availability declined from 76% in 1992 to 42% in 2022. The 2022 and 2021 levels were lowered in part by a survey mode effect in which estimates based on electronic data collection are about 7 points lower than estimates based on paperand-pencil surveys (compare columns ‘2019p’ and ‘2019e’ in Table 9-10). Nevertheless, even after adjusting the 2022 estimate by adding 7 points to it, the resulting level of 49% is the lowest recorded for this measure over the life of the survey and substantially lower than the 76% level in 1992. For 10th graders availability is down from the peak level of 90% in 1996 to 59% in 2022 (there was no significant mode effect in 2019 for 10th graders). This may reflect some success in state and local efforts to reduce access by those who are under age, as well as a decline in number of friends who use alcohol. It is worth noting, however, that even after these declines, alcohol remains available to a great many teens.

"Alcohol has long been the substance with the highest level of availability. It has been at 78% or higher up to 2022 in all years since its addition to the 12th grade survey in 1999. Over the past decade it has declined somewhat from 92% in 2009 to 78% in 2022."


Miech, R. A., Johnston, L. D., Patrick, M.E., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E., (2023). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2022: Secondary school students. Monitoring the Future Monograph Series. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.