"The proportion of pregnant admissions where opioids were the primary substance of use increased from 16.9% to 41.6% during the study period, while the proportion of pregnant admissions with OUD who received pharmacotherapy remained relatively unchanged at around 50%. Overall, pharmacotherapy recipients were generally older and white, more likely to receive treatment in an outpatient setting, be self-referred, and report heroin as the primary substance, daily substance use, and intravenous drug use, and less likely to have a co-occurring psychiatric problem compared to those who did not receive pharmacotherapy. Regional differences in pharmacotherapy utilization exist; the South consistently had the fewest pregnant admissions with OUD receiving pharmacotherapy.

"Although the proportion of pregnant admissions to substance use treatment centers with OUD has increased since the mid-1990s, the proportion receiving pharmacotherapy has not changed. Significant variations in pharmacotherapy utilization exist by geography and demographic, substance use and treatment characteristics. Utilization of pharmacotherapy at publically funded treatment centers providing care for pregnant women with OUD should be expanded."


Vanessa L. Short, Dennis J. Hand, Lauren MacAfee, Diane J. Abatemarco, Mishka Terplan. Trends and disparities in receipt of pharmacotherapy among pregnant women in publicly funded treatment programs for opioid use disorder in the United States. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Volume 89, 2018, Pages 67-74, ISSN 0740-5472. doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2018.04.003.