Rising Levels Of Stimulant Overdose Mortality In The US

"Of the 1,220,143 deaths with involved drugs listed on the death certificate, 130 560 (10.7% of all decedents) were found to have stimulants listed. Among stimulant-involved deaths, 93,689 decedents (71.8%) were men, the median (interquartile range) age was 45 (34-54) years, and 98,635 (75.5%) were White
(Table). Of these, 120,803 certificates (92.5%) listed only illicit stimulants, 5544 (4.2%) listed only medical stimulants, and 3524 listed both types (2.7%). Among illicit stimulants, there were 77,013 deaths (61.9%) involving cocaine, 49,602 deaths (39.9%) involving methamphetamine, and 817 deaths (0.7%) involving
3,4methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Among medical stimulants, there were 8240 deaths (90.9%) involving amphetamine, 295 deaths (0.3%) involving methylphenidate, and 615 deaths (0.7%) involving pseudoephedrine. Among all 3 stimulant groups, the proportion of deaths that also involved opioids was substantial; concomittant use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants was also not uncommon.

"Stimulant mortality has risen rapidly since 2010 (Figure). The mortality rate involving all stimulants rose from 2.913 deaths per 100,000 population in 2010 to 9.690 in 2017. Mortality rates increased among all medical stimulants (ARR, 1.226; 95% CI, 1.202-1.250), amphetamine (ARR, 1.118; 95% CI, 1.082-1.155), cocaine (ARR, 1.234;95% CI, 1.222-1.245), and methamphetamine (ARR, 1.278; 95% CI, 1.261-1.295)."

Source: 

Black JC, Bau GE, Iwanicki JL, Dart RC. Association of Medical Stimulants With Mortality in the US From 2010 to 2017. JAMA Intern Med. Published online February 01, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.7850.