"There are an estimated 15.6 million people who inject drugs (PWID) globally (3.2 million women and 12.5 million men). Among these persons, an estimated 17.8% are living with HIV, 52.3% are Hepatitis C (HCV)-antibody positive, and 9.1% are Hepatitis B (HBV) surface antigen positive [1]. PWID are also at high risk for skin and soft tissue infections and infective endocarditis [2–5]. In addition, injection drug use increases risks for fatal and nonfatal overdose [6–9]. Global estimates suggest that 82.9% of PWID primarily inject opioids, underscoring the urgency of implementing evidence-based response strategies to mitigate the range of adverse consequences associated with the opioid crisis [1]."


Allen ST, Schneider KE, Mazhnaya A, White RH, O'Rourke A, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN, Kilkenny ME, Sherman SG. Factors Associated with Likelihood of Initiating Others into Injection Drug Use Among People Who Inject Drugs in West Virginia. AIDS Behav. 2021 Jun 2:1–10. doi: 10.1007/s10461-021-03325-6. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34076812; PMCID: PMC8170059.