"Anabolic steroids are a class of synthetic substances that mimic the effects of the male hormone testosterone in the body. Bodybuilders and other athletes use these substances to increase muscle mass, strength, and endurance as well as to shorten recovery times after workouts. Anabolic steroids are also used medically to treat delayed puberty, muscle wasting, and osteoporosis [10]. Anabolic steroids are associated with numerous health risks, both short-term and long-term. Anabolic steroid use can cause acne, hair loss, and mood swings in the short term. It can also lead to liver damage, cardiovascular disease, and hormonal imbalances. Anabolic steroids can increase blood pressure and cholesterol levels, increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. Additionally, they can cause the development of breast tissue in men, a condition known as gynecomastia [11].

"Long-term use of anabolic steroids can lead to even more serious health consequences. It can cause kidney damage and increase the risk of prostate cancer. It can also lead to infertility, impotence, and reduced testicular size. Anabolic steroid use can also cause psychological effects, including mood swings, aggression, and depression [12]. In addition to the health risks associated with anabolic steroid use, legal and ethical concerns exist. Anabolic steroids are banned by most sports organizations, including the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). These substances are illegal in many countries, including the United States [13]."


Mantri S, Agarwal S, Jaiswal A, Yelne S, Prasad R, Wanjari MB. Bodybuilding: A Comprehensive Review of Performance-Enhancing Substance Use and Public Health Implications. Cureus. 2023 Jul 9;15(7):e41600. doi: 10.7759/cureus.41600. PMID: 37559855; PMCID: PMC10409494.