"Among 995 participants who were interviewed in 2019–2021, 63 (6.3%) had their drugs seized by police at least once in the past 6 months. In multivariable analyses, factors significantly associated with drug seizure included: homelessness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09–3.61), working in the unregulated drug market (AOR: 4.93; 95% CI 2.87–8.49), and naloxone administration (AOR: 2.15; 95% CI 1.23–3.76). In 2009–2012, 67.8% reported having obtained new drugs immediately after having their drugs seized by police. Odds of drug seizure were not significantly different between the two time periods (2019–2021 vs. 2009–2012) (AOR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.64–1.35)."


Hayashi K, Singh Kelsall T, Shane C, et al. Police seizure of drugs without arrest among people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada, before provincial 'decriminalization' of simple possession: a cohort study. Harm Reduct J. 2023;20(1):117. Published 2023 Aug 30. doi:10.1186/s12954-023-00833-7