"Cognitive enhancement may be defined as “the amplification or extension of core capacities of the mind through improvement or augmentation of internal or external information processing systems” (1). Both non-pharmacological and pharmacological enhancers are sought by the general public in order to improve performance during studying and at work by increasing concentration, motivation and accuracy, via physical, behavioral and biochemical activities (2).

"Cognitive enhancer drugs (CEs) are also known as “nootropics” (from the Greek ‘nous’ meaning ‘mind’ and ‘trepein’ meaning ‘turning/bending’), a term initially penned by Corneliu Giurgea when piracetam was found to exhibit memory-enhancing properties in clinical trials (3, 4). Cognitive enhancer drugs such as modafinil improve cognition in very specific ways such that it enhances “pattern recognition memory, digit span recall, and mental digit manipulation” (5)."


Napoletano F, Schifano F, Corkery JM, et al. The Psychonauts' World of Cognitive Enhancers. Front Psychiatry. 2020;11:546796. Published 2020 Sep 11. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.546796