"A total of 142 unique CEs [Cognitive Enhancers] were identified by NPSfinder®. They were divided into 10 categories, including plants/herbs/products (29%), prescribed drugs (17%), image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs) (15%), psychostimulants (15%), miscellaneous (8%), Phenethylamines (6%), GABAergic drugs (5%), cannabimimetic (4%), tryptamines derivatives (0.5%), and piperazine derivatives (0.5%). A total of 105 chemically different substances were uniquely identified by NPSfinder®. Only one CE was uniquely identified by the EMCDDA; no CE was uniquely identified by the UNODC."


Napoletano F, Schifano F, Corkery JM, et al. The Psychonauts' World of Cognitive Enhancers. Front Psychiatry. 2020;11:546796. Published 2020 Sep 11. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.546796