"Our results support the hypothesis that harm-reduction-based methadone maintenance treatment decreases the risk of natural-cause and overdose mortality. Furthermore, our data suggest that in harm- reduction-based methadone programs, being in methadone treatment is important in itself, independent of the pharmacologic effect of methadone dosage. To decrease mortality among drug users, prevention measures should be expanded for those who dropout of treatment."


Langendam, Miranda W., PhD, Giel H.A.van Brussel, MD, Roel A. Coutinho, MD, PhD, and Erik J.C. van Ameijden, PhD, "The Impact of Harm-Reduction-Based Methadone Treatment on Mortality Among Heroin Users," American Journal of Public Health (Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, May 2001), Vol. 95, No. 5, p. 779.