National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Data On People Who Inject Drugs

"This report describes data from 11,437 PWID who participated in NHBS in 2018, of whom 69% identified as male, 30% female, and 1% transgender; 39% were white, 33% were black, and 21% were Hispanic or Latino; 36% were aged ≥50 years (Table 1). Among all participants, 26% had no health insurance, 21% had not visited a health care provider, and the household income of 75% of participants was at or below the federal poverty level.

HIV Diagnoses Associated With Injection Drug Use by Region and Race/Ethnicity

"In 2018 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, 2,492 diagnosed HIV infections were among PWID. Of these, the largest number of HIV infection diagnoses were in the South (976), followed by the Northeast (595) (Figure 19). In all regions, the largest percentage of diagnosed HIV infections among PWID was among whites. In the South, whites accounted for 436 diagnosed HIV infections among PWID (45%), blacks/African Americans accounted for 359 (37%), and Hispanics/Latinos accounted for 143 (15%) (Table 6b).

Global Review Shows Most Countries Lack Adequate HIV Prevention Resources

"A systematic review undertaken in 2017 of the coverage of interventions to prevent and manage HIV and hepatitis C among PWID showed that needle and syringe programmes were available in only 52 per cent of countries where injecting drug use was reported, while opioid substitution therapy was confirmed to be available in 48 per cent of countries worldwide.

State Policies Regarding Disease Prevention and Syringe Service Programs

"Eighteen states had laws that were categorized as least comprehensive related to the prevention of HCV transmission among persons who inject drugs. In particular, these 18 states had no laws authorizing a syringe exchange program, decriminalizing possession and distribution of syringes and needles, or allowing the retail sale of syringes without a prescription.

Estimated Prevalence of HIV Related To Injection Drug Use Worldwide

"Injecting drug use is estimated to account for approximately 10 per cent of HIV infections worldwide and 30 per cent of all HIV cases outside Africa,113 while in the eastern countries of the WHO European Region114 more than 80 per cent of all HIV infections occur among PWID [People Who Inject Drugs].115 PWID are estimated to be 22 times more likely than people in the general population to be living with HIV.116

Global Progress in Controlling HIV-AIDS Related to Injection Drug Use

"The world is not on track to reduce HIV transmission among people who inject drugs by 50%, as recent evidence suggests little change in the HIV burden in this population. HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs remains high – up to 28% in Asia. HIV prevention coverage for people who inject drugs remains low, with only two of 32 reporting countries providing the recommended minimum of at least 200 sterile syringes per year for each person who injects drugs. Among 35 countries providing data in 2013, all but four reached less than 10% of opiate users with substitution therapy.

Prevalence of HIV Among Injection Drug Users in Australia

Prevalence of HIV Among Injection Drug Users in Australia: "The prevalence of HIV among people who inject drugs in Australia has remained low at 2.1% or less since 1995. The prevalence of HIV in 2011 was 1.2% (Figure 46). HCV prevalence among this group was much higher at 61% to 62% from 2005 to 2008, however this figure was lower at 53% 2011 (Figure 46) (Iversen and Maher, 2012)."

Incidence of HIV Among People in Norway Who Inject Drugs

"In 2013, 233 cases of HIV infection were reported to the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS). Eight of the cases were among injecting drug users: six men and two women. The median age was 31 years (30 to 37 years). Five of the eight injecting drug users who were diagnosed as HIV positive in 2013 were persons of foreign origin (mostly Eastern European) who had been infected before arriving in Norway.