Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C and Injection Drug Use

"Hepatitis C is associated with more deaths in the United States than 60 other infectious diseases reported to CDC combined. Despite curative hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies and known preventive measures to interrupt transmission, new HCV infections have increased in recent years (1,2). Injection drug use is the primary risk factor for new HCV infections (2). One potential strategy to decrease the prevalence of HCV is to create and strengthen public health laws and policies aimed specifically at reducing transmission risks among persons who inject drugs."

Growth in Incidence of Hepatitis C Diagnoses in the US and Mortality Among HCV-Infected Persons

(Growth in Incidence of Hepatitis C Diagnoses in the US and Mortality Among HCV-Infected Persons) "After receiving reports of cases of acute hepatitis C ranging from 781-877 during the years 2006–2010, reported cases of acute HCV infection increased more than 2.5 times from 2010–2014. Cases of acute HCV infection rose annually, from 850 in 2010 to 1,232 in 2011, 1,778 in 2012, 2,138 in 2013, and 2,194 in 2014. The increase from 2010–2014 is thought to reflect both true increases in incidence and, to a lesser extent, improved case ascertainment.

Global Estimated Prevalence of Injection Drug Use (IDU)-Related Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection

(Global Estimated Prevalence of Injection Drug Use (IDU)-Related Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection) "Another major global public health concern is hepatitis C, which can lead to liver diseases such as cirrhosis and cancer. Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent among people who inject drugs. UNODC estimates that the global prevalence of HCV among people who inject drugs is 51.0 per cent, meaning that 7.2 million people who inject drugs were living with HCV in 2011.17

HCV Drugs and Treatment

(HCV Drugs and Treatment) "Antiviral agents against HBV and HCV exist. However, drugs active against HBV or HCV are not widely accessible. Currently, three antiretrovirals (TDF, 3TC, FTC) are effective for treatment of both HIV and HBV, so co-infected patients can take fewer drugs to treat the two diseases.

HIV Co-Infection

(HIV Co-Infection) "HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV coinfections are an increasing problem in countries with HIV epidemics and among injecting drug users. For co-infected persons being treated with HIV antiretroviral medicines, underlying viral hepatitis is becoming a major cause of death."

Acute Hepatitis C Infections in the US in 2014, by Transmission Method

(Acute Hepatitis C Infections in the US in 2014, by Transmission Method)
"• Of the 2,194 case-reports of acute hepatitis C received by CDC during 2014, 942 (42.9%) did not include a response (i.e., a “yes” or “no” response to any of the questions about risk exposures and behaviors) to enable assessment of risk exposures or behaviors.

Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus

(Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus) "HCV is transmitted primarily through percutaneous (parenteral) exposure that can result from injection-drug use, needle stick injuries, and inadequate infection control in health-care settings. Much less often, HCV transmission occurs among HIV-positive persons, especially MSM, as a result of sexual contact with an HCV-infected partner (30, 31), among persons who receive tattoos in unregulated settings (31), and among infants born to HCV-infected mothers (32).

Global Estimated Drug-Related Mortality, 2011

(Global Estimated Drug-Related Mortality, 2011) "UNODC estimates that there were between 102,000 and 247,000 drug-related deaths in 2011, corresponding to a mortality rate of between 22.3 and 54.0 deaths per million population aged 15-64. This represents between 0.54 per cent and 1.3 per cent of mortality from all causes globally among those aged 15-64.20 The extent of drug-related deaths has essentially remained unchanged globally and within regions."

HCV Prevalence

(HCV Prevalence) "Hepatitis C is the most common blood-borne pathogen in humans and the most common cause of liver failure and reason for liver transplantation in the United States.1 In a large population-based study, 1.8% (3.9 million) of a large household-based sample was positive for anti-hepatitis C virus antibody.2 Of these, 74% (2.7 million) had viremia, an indicator of chronic infection. As many as half of these persons were unaware they were infected.3,4"