Substitution Treatment for Psychostimulant Use

"Recent trials with extended-release formulations and higher dosages of PPs [Prescription Psychosimulants], particularly prescription amphetamines, have shown promising results promoting abstinence from cocaine and reducing drug use. PPs’ potential as an “agonist-type” treatment seems to be better explored with higher dosage regimens and at clinical settings that have direct observed dosing available.

Drug Overdose Deaths in the US Involving Cocaine and Psychostimulants On the Rise

"Deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants have increased in the United States in recent years; among 70,237 drug overdose deaths in 2017, nearly a third (23,139 [32.9%]) involved cocaine, psychostimulants, or both. From 2016 to 2017, death rates involving cocaine and psychostimulants each increased by approximately one third, and increases occurred across all demographic groups, Census regions, and in several states. In 2017, nearly three fourths of cocaine-involved and roughly one half of psychostimulant-involved overdose deaths, respectively, involved at least one opioid.

Estimated Value of US Methamphetamine Market

(Estimated Value of US Methamphetamine Market) "A more recent study using a demand-side approach estimates that the annual retail value of the U.S. methamphetamine market is between $3 and $8 billion, with a best guess of $5 billion.12 The margin of error is large because the footprint of methamphetamine use does not match the footprint of the data collection system. Methamphetamine use in the United States is concentrated in certain regions, and it is not primarily an urban drug, whereas data collection systems are centered in urban areas.

Estimated Prevalence of Current Methamphetamine Use in the US, 2014

Amphetamine-Type Stimulants

(Estimated Prevalence of Current Methamphetamine Use in the US, 2014) "In 2014, the estimated 1.6 million people aged 12 or older who were current nonmedical users of stimulants included 569,000 people who were current methamphetamine users (Figure 8). Thus, almost two thirds of current nonmedical users of stimulants in 2014 who were aged 12 or older reported current nonmedical use of prescription stimulants but not methamphetamine.

Trends in Methamphetamine Use by Young People in the US, 1999-2012

(Trends in Methamphetamine Use by Young People in the US, 1999-2012) "Methamphetamine questions were introduced in 1999 because of rising concern about use of this drug; but a decline in use has been observed among all five populations in the years since then, although young adults did not show declines until 2005. In 2007 this decline continued in all five populations, and was significant in grades 8 and 12, with little further change thereafter, except for a jump up among 12th graders in 2011 and among young adults in 2012.

Trends in Prevalence of Crystal Meth (Ice) Use Among Youth in the US, 1990-2012

(Trends in Prevalence of Crystal Meth (Ice) Use Among Youth in the US, 1990-2012) "Measures on the use of crystal methamphetamine (ice) (a crystallized form of methamphetamine that can be smoked, much like crack) have been included in MTF [Monitoring The Future] since 1990. The use of crystal methamphetamine increased between the early and late 1990s among the three populations asked about their use: 12th graders, college students, and young adults. However, use never reached very high levels.

Source of Methamphetamine Supply in the US, 2008

(Source of Methamphetamine Supply in the US, 2008) "Preliminary 2008 availability and seizure data indicate a strengthening in domestic methamphetamine availability and domestic methamphetamine production, and an increase in the flow of methamphetamine into the United States from Mexico—most likely attributable to the efforts of methamphetamine producers in both countries to reestablish the methamphetamine supply chain in the face of disruptions and shortages that began occurring in early 2007. Throughout 2007 methamphetamine availability decreased in U.S.

Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Use

(Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Use) "A paranoid psychosis may result from long-term use; rarely, the psychosis is precipitated by a single high dose or by repeated moderate doses. Typical features include delusions of persecution, ideas of reference (notions that everyday occurrences have special meaning or significance personally meant for or directed to the patient), and feelings of omnipotence. Some users experience a prolonged depression, during which suicide is possible. Recovery from even prolonged amphetamine psychosis is usual but is slow.