Overdose

Statistics and other data on overdoses, including mortality estimates. Overdoses from all causes are examined, including alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine, in addition to heroin, fentanyl, and other opioids. Includes a subsection on naloxone, the opiate antagonist that can immediately reverse an opioid overdose.

Prescription Opioid Tapering, Overdose Risk, and Suicidality

"In this emulated trial including more than 400 000 episodes of stable long-term opioid therapy, opioid tapering was associated with a small (0.15%) absolute increase in the risk of overdose or suicide events compared with a stable dosage during 11 months of follow-up. We did not identify a difference in the risk of overdose or suicide events between abrupt discontinuation and stable dosage, although the smaller number of episodes categorized as abrupt discontinuation may have reduced precision. The findings were robust to secondary and sensitivity analyses.

Emergency Department Visits and Trends Related to Cocaine, Psychostimulants, and Opioids in the United States, 2008–2018

"Psychostimulant-related ED visits increased from 2.2 to 12.9 visits per 10,000 population from 2008 to 2018. This is consistent with studies showing increasing national rates of ED visits, hospitalizations, and deaths from psychostimulant overdose [2, 4, 5, 33]. The increasing use of the ED and other acute care settings is likely linked to rising methamphetamine availability and use [34]. National Forensic Laboratory Information System data found methamphetamine case submissions increased from 2011 to 2019, with methamphetamine as the most frequently reported drug [35].

Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution Within Syringe Service Programs

"Among the 342 known SSPs operating at the beginning of 2019, 263 (77%) responded to the online survey; of these, 247 (94%) had an OEND program, 160 (65%) of which had been implemented since 2016 (Figure 1). With regard to phases of OEND implementation, 173 (66%) responding SSPs had been implementing OEND for 12 months or more, 74 (28%) had implemented OEND within the last 12 months, eight (3%) were actively preparing for OEND implementation, and eight (3%) were exploring OEND implementation (Table).

Association of Dose Tapering With Overdose or Mental Health Crisis

"In the current study, tapering was associated with absolute differences in rates of overdose or mental health crisis events of approximately 3 to 4 events per 100 person-years compared with nontapering. These findings suggest that adverse events associated with tapering may be relatively common and support HHS recommendations for more gradual dose reductions when feasible and careful monitoring for withdrawal, substance use, and psychological distress.9

Unprecedented Increases In Overdose Mortality In First Seven Months Of 2020

"By disaggregating monthly trends, we found that unprecedented increases in overdose mortality occurred during the early months of pandemic in the United States. At the peak, overdose deaths in May 2020 were elevated by nearly 60% compared with the previous year, and the first 7 months of 2020 were overall elevated by 35% compared with the same period for 2019. To put this in perspective, if the final values through December 2020 were to be elevated by a similar margin, we would expect a total of 93,000 to 98,000 deaths to eventually be recorded for the year.

Drug Overdose Rates In The US, 2019

"The age-adjusted rate for drug overdose deaths in the United States for 2019 was 21.6 per 100,000 standard population (Figure 1, Table). The five states with the highest rates were West Virginia (52.8), Delaware (48.0), District of Columbia (43.2), Ohio (38.3), and Maryland (38.2). The five states with the lowest rates were Nebraska (8.7), South Dakota (10.5), Texas (10.8), North Dakota (11.4), and Iowa (11.5).

Drug Poisoning Deaths In The US, 2019

"In 2019, 70,630 deaths from the toxic effects of drug poisoning (drug overdose) occurred in the United States (1), a 4.8% increase compared with 2018 and the highest recorded number in recent history. Drug overdose deaths remain a persistent and urgent public health problem in the United States. This NCHS Health E-Stat provides information on drug overdose mortality by state (and the District of Columbia) and by race and ethnicity, and adds to findings from a recently published Data Brief on drug overdose death rates (1)."

Good Samaritan and Naloxone Access Laws Save Lives

"GAO found that 48 jurisdictions (47 states and D.C.) have enacted both Good Samaritan and Naloxone Access laws. Kansas, Texas and Wyoming do not have a Good Samaritan law for drug overdoses but have a Naloxone Access law. The five U.S. territories do not have either type of law. GAO also found that the laws vary. For example, Good Samaritan laws vary in the types of drug offenses that are exempt from prosecution and whether this immunity takes effect before an individual is arrested or charged, or after these events but before trial.

Rising Levels Of Stimulant Overdose Mortality In The US

"Of the 1,220,143 deaths with involved drugs listed on the death certificate, 130 560 (10.7% of all decedents) were found to have stimulants listed. Among stimulant-involved deaths, 93,689 decedents (71.8%) were men, the median (interquartile range) age was 45 (34-54) years, and 98,635 (75.5%) were White (Table). Of these, 120,803 certificates (92.5%) listed only illicit stimulants, 5544 (4.2%) listed only medical stimulants, and 3524 listed both types (2.7%).

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