"In this study, the highest levels of comorbidity (six or more comorbid conditions) among veterans were observed among treatment seekers. However, only those with comorbid DUD [Drug Use Disorders] were significantly more likely to seek treatment for PTSD once potentially confounding factors were accounted for. It is of concern that, in the present sample, 32% of veterans with PTSD who did not seek treatment had 6+ comorbid conditions.
"Overall, the prevalence of 6.3% for lifetime DSM-5 PTSD in U.S. veterans is lower than that reported in previous studies of era-specific (18.7% and 52%) (Dohrenwend et al., 2007; Ikin et al., 2010; Jakupcak et al., 2010) veteran cohorts but similar to a national sample of veterans (7.95%; Wisco et al., 2014) using previous diagnostic classifications. In part this may reflect the narrow definition used in the study. However, the lifetime prevalence of PTSD among veterans in this study was very similar to the prevalences of 6.4% and 7.8% reported for DSM-IV PTSD in the general U.S.
"Past-year (4.7%) and lifetime (6.1%) prevalences of DSM-5 PTSD represent 10,972,986 and 14,411,005 affected U.S. adults, respectively. Broadly consistent with previous findings [3, 4, 42, 43], prevalences were higher among women and respondents aged <65 years, previously married, and with <high school education and household income <$70,000. Rates were also higher among Native American, but lower among Asian and Pacific Islander and Hispanic, versus non-Hispanic white, respondents, and lower among urban than rural residents.
Researchers performed a randomised, double-blind, dose-response, phase 2 trial at an outpatient psychiatric clinic in the USA, which included service personnel who were 18 years or older, with chronic PTSD duration of 6 months or more, and who had a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-IV) total score of 50 or greater. They found that effective doses of MDMA that were administered in a controlled setting, along with adjunctive psychotherapy, were well tolerated and were effective at reducing the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.
"A growing body of literature provides compelling evidence that CBD has anxiolytic effects and recent studies have established a role for CBD in regulating learned fear by dampening its expression, disrupting its reconsolidation, and facilitating its extinction. The opposing effects of CBD on fear memory reconsolidation and extinction make it particularly attractive as a potential adjunct to psychological therapy as both may lead to lasting reductions in learned fear expression.
Cannabinoids and PTSD: "A chart review of patients diagnosed with PTSD who were referred to a private psychiatric clinic suggests that the synthetic cannabinoid, nabilone, has beneficial effects beyond its official indication in regard to abolishing or greatly reducing nightmares that persisted in spite of treatment with conventional PTSD medications.