(Proportion of Students Using Any Drug Changes Slowly) "Overall, these data reveal that, while use of individual drugs (other than marijuana) may fluctuate widely, the proportion using any of them is much more stable. In other words, the proportion of students prone to using such drugs and willing to cross the normative barriers to such use changes more gradually.
Prevention & Education
Prevention & Education
(Evaluation of Revamped Media Campaign) "Another possibility is that youth who had other protective factors in their lives would be more sympathetic to the aspirational messages, and as a result notice and remember them, producing higher self-reported campaign recognition and spurious positive predictive effects. This explanation, while it cannot be excluded, seems to pose only a modest threat to inference for several reasons. One is that those interested in using a product are more likely to attend to relevant messages, as noted above.
(Any Drug Use vs Specific Drug Use) "Overall, these data reveal that, while use of individual drugs (other than marijuana) may fluctuate widely, the proportion using any of them is much more stable. In other words, the proportion of students prone to using such drugs and willing to cross the normative barriers to such use changes more gradually.
(Socioeconomic Status and the "Joe Camel" Ad Campaign) "Prior to 1981, daily use of cigarettes among 12th graders was generally inversely related to SES, with each successively higher SES group smoking less (Figure 5-12f).
(School Resource Officers) "An SRO [school resource officer] carries out some of the functions of a guidance counselor or social worker, such as mentoring or advising, but with arresting authority and license to carry a weapon in schools. In a national assessment of SRO programs, SROs reported that they spend approximately 20 hours per week on law enforcement activities, 10 hours on advising and mentoring, 5 hours on teaching (e.g. G.R.E.A.T. or D.A.R.E. programming9), and another 6 or 7 hours on other activities.10"
(Early Life Stress, Abuse and Neglect) "Exposure to early life stress, even to more severe forms such as physical and sexual abuse and emotional neglect, is common in the general population. The degree of risk for adult psychopathology tends to be correlated with the severity of childhood maltreatment and the number of childhood SLE [stressful life events].
(Federal Support for Drug Free Community Programs) "In August 2011, the Administration announced $12.3 million in new DFC Support Program grants to 87 communities and 20 new DFC Mentoring grants. In addition, nearly $76 million in continuation grants were awarded to 607 currently funded DFC coalitions and 12 DFC Mentoring coalitions. In this grant cycle, 74 percent of the new competing awards serve urban areas.
(Campaign's Annual Budget) The GAO reported in 2006 that "From fiscal year 1998 through fiscal year 2006, Congress appropriated over $1.4 billion to support the campaign. For fiscal year 2007, the President’s budget requested $120 million for the campaign, an increase over the fiscal year 2006 appropriation, to purchase additional media time and space to increase the reach and frequency of the campaign’s messages, which would restore appropriations to their fiscal year 2005 level."
(ONDCP Continues to Support the Campaign) "Unfortunately, despite evidence of its effectiveness, Congress appropriated no funding for the Media Campaign in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, and the campaign is now operating on a minimal budget composed of its unobligated balances as the Youth Drug Prevention Media Program.