"A systematic review undertaken in 2017 of the coverage of interventions to prevent and manage HIV and hepatitis C among PWID showed that needle and syringe programmes were available in only 52 per cent of countries where injecting drug use was reported, while opioid substitution therapy was confirmed to be available in 48 per cent of countries worldwide.
Syringe/Needle Exchange Programs
Statistics and other data regarding syringe and needle exchange programs and syringe service programs. Syringe service programs are a vitally important harm reduction intervention that have been proven to enhance public safety and improve public health.
"Eighteen states had laws that were categorized as least comprehensive related to the prevention of HCV transmission among persons who inject drugs. In particular, these 18 states had no laws authorizing a syringe exchange program, decriminalizing possession and distribution of syringes and needles, or allowing the retail sale of syringes without a prescription.
"In the thirteen-year (2004–2016) combined sample of young adults aged 21–30, 1.5% report having ever used any drug by injection not under a doctor’s orders, and 0.5% reported doing so on 40 or more occasions (Table 4-1a). Thus, about 1 in every 67 respondents has ever used an illicit drug by injection, and about 1 in every 200 respondents reports an extended pattern of use as indicated by use on 40 or more occasions. There is a fair-sized gender difference -- 2.3% of males vs. 0.9% of females indicate ever injecting a drug.
(Services Offered by Syringe Services Programs / Syringe Exchange Programs) "Despite differences in program size, operating budgets, and staffing among SSPs [Syringe Services Programs] in rural, suburban, and urban locations, there were similarities in on-site services (Table 3). Most SSPs offered HIV counseling and testing (87% among rural SSPs, 71% among suburban SSPs, and 90% among urban SSPs) and HCV testing (67% among rural SSPs, 79% among suburban SSPs, and 78% among urban SSPs).
(Laws Restricting Syringe Availability) "Programs that provide access to sterile syringes have been proven time and again to reduce HIV transmission without either encouraging drug use or increasing drug related crime. Syringe exchange, as well as similar measures such as nonprescription pharmacy sale of syringes, is an effective and life-saving health intervention. Yet syringe exchange is banned in much of the United States and, where it is allowed, is obstructed by laws forbidding the possession of drug paraphernalia.
(Recommendation of British Advisory Council on Misuse of Drugs) "Recommendation 1. Local service planners need to review local needle and syringe services (and be supported in this work) in order to take steps to increase access and availability to sterile injecting equipment and to increase the proportion of injectors who receive 100 per cent coverage of sterile injecting equipment in relation to their injecting frequency."
(Syringe Need and Availability) "Respondents reported injecting a median of 60 times per month, visiting the syringe exchange program a median of 4 times per month, and obtaining a median of 10 syringes per transaction; more than one in four reported reusing syringes. Fifty-four percent of participants reported receiving fewer syringes than their number of injections per month. Receiving an inadequate number of syringes was more frequently reported by younger and homeless injectors, and by those who reported public injecting in the past month."
(Prevalence of Injection Drug Use and Risk Behaviors in the US) "Combined 2006 to 2008 data indicate that an annual average of 425,000 persons aged 12 or older (0.17 percent) used a needle to inject heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, or other stimulants during the past year
"One eighth (13.0 percent) of past year injection drug users had used a needle that they knew or suspected someone else had used before them the last time they used a needle to inject drugs