Treatment

Data, statistics and information regarding treatment for substance use disorders, including capacity, need, efficacy, and more.

Treatment Effectiveness at Reducing Levels of Offending

"Overall, lower levels of acquisitive offending and high-cost offending were recorded at follow-up. Among those who continued to offend, improvements in offending behaviour at follow-up, in terms of a decrease in its volume and/ or the costs associated with it, were observed. Crack users, injecting users, users with high SDS [Severity of Dependence Scores] scores, and those with previous treatment experience were more likely to offend than others at any point.

Estimated Worldwide Treatment Utilization and Unmet Treatment Need

"Globally, the extent to which people in need of drug treatment actually receive it remains limited. In 2016, as in previous years, an estimated one in six people who had drug use disorders received treatment. Despite limitations, information about people in treatment for drug use can provide useful insight into trends and geographical variations with respect to drug use disorders.

Effectiveness of Treatment on Social Reintegration and Employment

"In a recent secondary analysis of a national US survey of clients conducted in the early 1990s (National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study), researchers tried to identify which types of treatment modality (methadone-substitute prescribing, methadone-assisted detoxification, outpatient detoxification, short-term residential, long-term residential or criminal justice focused) and treatment characteristics (e.g. length of treatment) were associated with better employment outcomes (Dunlap et al., 2007).

Effectiveness of Treatment on Employment and Social Reintegration

"The Drug Treatment Outcomes Research Study (DTORS) was one example of European research with encouraging results regarding employment (Jones et al., 2009). This study investigated drug use, health and psychosocial outcomes in 1 796 English drug users attending a range of different types of treatment service. Follow-up interviews were conducted between 3 and 13 months after baseline (soon after initial treatment entry).

Trends in Treatment Admissions of People For Whom Their Primary Drug was Heroin or Other Opiates

Heroin
"• Heroin was reported as the primary substance of abuse for 26 percent of TEDS admissions aged 12 and older in 2015 [Table 1.1b].

"• Sixty-seven percent of primary heroin admissions were non-Hispanic White (41 percent were males and 26 percent were females). Non-Hispanic Blacks made up 14 percent (9 percent were males and 5 percent were females). Admissions of Puerto Rican origin made up 7 percent of primary heroin admissions (6 percent were males and 1 percent were females) [Table 2.3b]. See Chapter 3 for additional data on heroin admissions.

Factors Explaining Disparities in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes

"Our analysis points to factors that may help explain disparities and guide policy. In particular, when we adjusted for both individual need and provider setting, we found that alcohol treatment disparities widened between whites and blacks and between whites and Native Americans. Blacks and Native Americans also were more likely to be treated in residential settings than were whites, suggesting that higher placement rates in residential treatment for these groups may actually help limit disparities and could compensate for other forms of disadvantage.

Reasons for Treatment Completion Disparities

"Using national data, we found that blacks and Hispanics were 3.5–8.1 percentage points less likely than whites to complete treatment for alcohol and drugs, and Native Americans were 4.7 percentage points less likely to complete alcohol treatment. Only Asian Americans fared better than whites for both types of treatment. Completion disparities for blacks and Hispanics were largely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and, in particular, greater unemployment and housing instability.

Substance Use Disorder Treatment Completion Rates by Race

"Across racial and ethnic groups, treatment completion rates were generally highest for people receiving treatment that primarily targeted alcohol abuse, followed by treatment for methamphetamines, and were lowest for treatment for heroin (Exhibit 2). Except for opiates and heroin, where the differences were not significant, Asian Americans were more likely than whites to complete treatment for all substances. Conversely, blacks and Hispanics were significantly less likely than whites to complete treatment for all substances except for opiates.

Admissions to Treatment for Marijuana in the US

According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service's Treatment Episode Data Set, in 2015 in the US there were 213,001 admissions to treatment with marijuana reported as the primary substance of abuse out of the total 1,537,025 admissions to treatment in the US for those aged 12 and older for all substances that year. This is the lowest number of marijuana admissions and total treatment admissions in at least a decade: marijuana admissions peaked in 2009 at 373,338, and total admissions peaked in 2008 at 2,074,974.

Estimated Unmet Treatment Need in the US, 2010-2013

"• In 2013, among the 20.2 million persons aged 12 or older who were classified as needing substance use treatment but not receiving treatment at a specialty facility in the past year, 908,000 persons (4.5 percent) reported that they perceived a need for treatment for their illicit drug or alcohol use problem (Figure 7.10). Of these 908,000 persons who felt they needed treatment but did not receive treatment in 2013, 316,000 (34.8 percent) reported that they made an effort to get treatment, and 592,000 (65.2 percent) reported making no effort to get treatment.

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