Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs and Heroin Use

"Even well-intentioned policies have exacerbated the link between opioid use and infectious disease. For instance, prescription drug monitoring programs and other measures to limit access to prescription opioids triggered a transition to heroin and, eventually, injection use among people who had become dependent on prescription pain relievers. At the same time, primary care clinics have not adequately screened, treated, and retained patients in treatment for substance use disorders.